26 May 2024

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Gingival Hyperplasia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment
Dental Care

Gingival Hyperplasia: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment 

Gingival hyperplasia is an overgrowth of gum tissue around the teeth. This illness can be caused by a variety of factors, but it is typically a sign of poor dental hygiene or a side effect of certain drugs. Gingival hyperplasia, if left untreated, can cause tooth alignment issues and raise the risk of gum disease as told by a Tukwila dentist. Gingival hyperplasia can be treated by changing oral hygiene habits. In more severe situations, surgical treatment is required. In this article, we will discuss the symptoms, etiology, and treatment of gingival hyperplasia.

Gingival hyperplasia is also referred to as:

  • gingival overgrowth
  • hypertrophy
  • hypertrophic gingivitis
  • gum enlargement


  • Gingival expansion can make teeth difficult to clean, increasing the risk of periodontal disease.
  • Periodontitis can arise with gingival irritation, untreated tooth plaque, and poor oral hygiene.


    • Poor oral hygiene practices
    • Drug-induced (e.g. phenytoin, methotrexate, cyclosporin, calcium channel blockers)
    • Systemic illness (e.g. leukemia) or pregnancy

Drug-Induced Gingival Hyperplasia

The drugs that have been linked to gingival hyperplasia are divided into three categories: anti-seizure medications, immunosuppressant medications used in transplant patients, and calcium channel blockers used to treat different cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure). If you take any drugs that have been related to gingival hyperplasia, you should keep an eye out for any indications of gum irritation. According to a 2013 study, gum inflammation may be the first sign that a person would develop gum overgrowth or hyperplasia.

Treating Gingival Overgrowth

Gingival hyperplasia can reoccur despite advances in dental cleanliness, expert treatment, and pharmacological substitutes. In such circumstances, enlarged gums may require surgical removal. Periodontists can do this procedure using a scalpel or a laser.

  • Electrosurgery. In electrosurgery, your periodontist applies electric currents to your gum tissue to cut or remove what has been overgrown.
  • Gingivectomy. A gingivectomy removes a portion of your gums from around your teeth. A periodontist will trim and remove diseased gums, and then repair your remaining gums with stitches.
  • Laser Excision: Overgrown gums can be removed using several methods, including laser excision. A periodontist will utilize lasers to eliminate inflammatory gum tissue. After the gums are removed, the periodontist will scrape away any plaque accumulation around your teeth’s roots
  • Periodontal Flap Surgery: This technique separates the gums and teeth. The gums are briefly folded back, allowing the periodontist to remove inflammatory tissue and clear any plaque or tartar.

If you are having unusual symptoms or are concerned about your dental health, schedule an appointment with your local dentist.

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